The protected designation of origin “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” is reserved exclusively for that milk product, which meets the conditions and requirements laid down in this product specification.
Description and characteristics of the product
PDO “RICOTTA DI BUFALA CAMPANA”, is a dairy product obtained by heat coagulation of proteins, characterized by a high content in water. When released for consumption, the PDO “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” has the following characteristics:
shape: pyramid trunk or conical trunk
weight: up to 2,000 grams;
Color: porcelain white;
external appearance: no crust;
consistency: soft, grainy, but not sandy.
fat on dry matter: minimum 45%;
fat: not less than 12% stq;
humidity: not more than 75%;
lactic acid : 0,3 % or less;
Sodium content: 0,3 % or less:
taste: characteristic, fresh and delicately sweet;
smell: fragrant milk and cream.
The production area of the PDO “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” includes the following administrative territory:
– Province of Benevento: the entire territory of the municipalities of Limatola, Dugenta and Amorosi.
– Province of Caserta: the entire territory.
– Province of Naples: the entire territory of the municipalities of Acerra, Arzano, Cardito, Frattamaggiore, Frattaminore, Giugliano in Campania, Mugnano di Napoli, Pozzuoli and Qualiano.
– Province of Salerno: the entire territory.
– Province of Frosinone: the entire territory of the municipalities of Amaseno, Giuliano di Roma, Villa S. Stefano, Castro dei Volsci, Pofi, Ceccano, Frosinone, Ferentino, Morolo, Alatri, Castrocielo, Ceprano, Roccasecca.
– Province of Latina: the entire territory of the municipalities of Cisterna di Latina, Fondi, Lenola, Latina, Maenza, Minturno, Monte S. Biagio, Pontinia, Priverno, Prossedi, Roccagorga, Roccasecca dei Volsci, Sabaudia, S. Felice Circeo, Sermoneta, Sezze, Sonnino, Sperlonga, Terracina, Aprilia, S. Cosma and Damiano.
– Province of Rome: the entire territory of the municipalities of Anzio, Ardea, Nettuno, Pomezia, Roma and Monterotondo.
– Province of Foggia: the entire territory of the municipalities of Manfredonia, Lesina, Poggio Imperiale and part of the territory of the following municipalities with the corresponding delimitation:
– Cerignola – The area is bordered to the east by Lake Salpi, to the south by the state road n. 544, to the north and to the west by the municipality of Manfredonia;
– Foggia – the area embraces the perimeter of the new ring road, to the east in the direction of the municipality of Manfredonia, to the west in the direction of the municipality of Lucera, to the north and south it borders on the remaining part of the municipality of Foggia;
– Lucera – The area concerned is bordered to the west by the municipality of Foggia, to the south by the State Road No. 546 and part of the San Lorenzo stream, to the north by the provincial road n. 16 until you reach the town of Torremaggiore and to the east by the provincial road n. 17 that leads from Lucera to Foggia;
– Torremaggiore – the area concerned is bordered to the south by the municipality of Lucera, to the east by the municipality of San Severo, to the west by the provincial road No. 17 towards Lucera and to the north by the municipality of Apricena;
– Apricena – The area concerned runs along the Radicosa stream to the south, the Pederganica road to the east and the municipality of Sannicandro Garganico, to the west with the municipality of Lesina and to the north with the municipality of Poggio Imperiale;
– Sannicandro Garganico – The area concerned is bordered to the south by the Garganica state road, to the north by the municipality of Lesina, to the west by the municipality of Apricena, to the east by the municipality of Cagnano Varano;
– Cagnano Varano – The area concerned is bordered to the south by the Garganica state road, to the east by Lake Varano, to the west by the municipality of Sannicandro Garganico and to the north by the sea;
– San Giovanni Rotondo – The area concerned is bordered to the south by the state road No. 89, to the east by the municipality of Manfredonia, to the west by the municipality of San Marco in Lamis and to the north by the provincial road No. 58;
– San Marco in Lamis – The area concerned is bordered to the north by the municipality of Foggia, to the east by the municipality of San Giovanni Rotondo, to the west by the municipality of Rignano Garganico and to the north by the remaining part of the municipality of San Marco in Lamis.
– Province of Isernia: the entire territory of the municipality of Venafro.
Proof of Origin
Each phase of the production process is monitored by documenting the inputs and outputs for each. In this way, and through the inclusion in special lists managed by the control structure of farmers, producers-packers, as well as through the timely declaration to the control structure of the quantities produced, the traceability of the product is guaranteed. All natural or legal persons included in the lists shall be subject to control by the inspection body in accordance with the specification and the control plan.
Method of production
- Feeding of buffaloes
More than half of lactating buffalo rationing is based on feeding fodder from the PDO area. Forages can be conveniently supplemented with feed that balances the intake of the different nutrients in the diet. The feed to be administered to buffaloes whose milk and whey is also intended for the production of “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” PDO should be suitable and qualitatively safe in order not to compromise animal health and not to transfer substances, unpleasant milk odours or flavours. Silage from maize and fodder not listed in the list of prohibited foods is permitted. The silage mass, hermetically closed, should be covered with a suitable cloth avoiding black sheets on the outside and transparent covers. Silage fodder should be fed no earlier than 40 days after the silo is closed. The Ph of the silage mass should be around 4.3 or lower for grasses and around 4.5 for legumes.
- Alimony allowed
Fresh, affixed, dried, dehydrated and silage fodder may be administered provided that it is not expressly mentioned in the paragraph “Prohibited foods”. The same applies to farm or industrial feed and to supplementary fodder products and industrial by-products.
- Prohibited foods
In the feeding of milk buffaloes the use of: fodder heated by fermentation is prohibited;
The use of the following essences of plant origin shall be prohibited:
a) rapeseed, rape, mustard, fenugreek, fruit and non-fruit plant leaves, wild garlic, coriander;
b) fennel, cauliflower, cabbage, turnips and other cruciferous;
c) marc, stalks and pips;
d) leaves and collars of beets, borlande;
e) tomato husks and seeds, residues from the canning industry;
f) olive pomace;
g) citrus mash (fresh and silage);
h) seeds of vetch (including shavings), fenugreek, colza and rape;
i) by-products of the processing of rice: husk, husk, pulette, farinaccio, gemma and grana verde;
j) extraction of flour, oil cake and expeller of: peanuts, rapeseed, rape, tomato seeds, babassu, neuk, coconut, tobacco, sesame, poppy, palmisto, olives, almonds and walnuts;
k) branched amino acids, peptides, protein lysates, isoacids;
l) Oils of oil seeds.
- Raw Materials
The raw material for the production of “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” PDO consists of the “first whey” (or “sweet whey”) from the processing of buffalo milk, obtained from the manual and/or mechanical milking of buffaloes of the Italian Mediterranean breed reared in the production area indicated in Article 3. The “first serum” (or “sweet serum”) must be obtained from the purge mechanism due to the breaking of the curd intended for the production of buffalo mozzarella. The maximum titratable acidity of the whey used for the production of “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” PDO is 3.5# SH/50 ml, therefore the “acid serum” resulting from the completion of the maturation of the curd cannot be used for the production of “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” PDO.
If the immediate transformation of the whey is not possible, it must be subjected to stabilization treatments (pasteurization, thermization and/or refrigeration) with techniques and times such as to avoid in any case its acidification beyond the defined maximum value. In any case, the whey is transformed into “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” PDO within 24 hours of separation from the curd. It is allowed the addition of raw buffalo milk, thermized or pasteurized, from the area referred to in art. 3 to a maximum of 6% of the mass of the “first serum” (or “sweet serum”). It is allowed the addition of fresh cream of whey buffalo milk from the area referred to in art. 3 to a maximum of 5% of the mass of the first serum. This procedure is used to increase the consistency of the ricotta and also facilitate the extraction or extraction. Salt (nacl) may be added up to a maximum of 1 kg per 100 kg of “first whey” (or “sweet whey”) or a mixture of whey with milk and/or fresh cream. The addition of salt directly to the whey not only gives the product more flavor, but also affects the denaturation and aggregation of proteins and therefore the consistency of the product.
The “first serum” (or “sweet serum”) is sent immediately, or after stabilization and storage treatment less than 24 hours, to the special boilers where the production of the PDO “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” takes place. Heating can take place either by direct steam injection or by indirect heat exchange. The possible addition of buffalo milk and/or fresh cream can take place both before the start of heating and also when heating is started. After having reached an average temperature of 82 (natural whey derived from previous processing of buffalo mozzarella from farms in the production area referred to in Article 3), lactic acid or citric acid in order to change the acidity of the medium and thus facilitate the obtaining of cottage cheese. The heating phase is completed until a temperature of not more than 92 ºC is reached. The heat determines the denaturation of the proteins and their aggregation, then the formation of a soft and fine clot that begins to emerge immediately to the surface thanks to the presence of fat. This phase is completed in a few minutes. The separation of the ricotta is carried out either manually using a perforated ladle and gently depositing the wet clot directly in the characteristics of plastic material for food use or in the cloths, or mechanically with the use of special extractors. The ricotta placed in the fiscelle or in the cloth then completes the separation of the sheet to assume its final consistency. The drained ricotta is partially cooled. Packaging must take place within 24 hours of production, either before or after the cooling procedure. If the ricotta is not immediately packaged, the cooling continues until it reaches the temperature of + 4 ºF in the cold room; if the ricotta is packaged, cooling continues until the temperature of + 4 ºC is reached in the cold room or in the water and/or ice bath. The maximum shelf life (shelf-life) of “fresh” “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” cannot be longer, from the date of production to 7 days. In order to obtain an annealed cheese with a higher shelf-life (maximum 21 days from the date of production), a heat treatment of the annealed cheese drained from the sheet is allowed before proceeding to the packaging phase. The ricotta is then smoothed or homogenized in order to give it a creamier appearance. The product thus obtained is called “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” “fresh homogenized”. The packaging of hot annealed annealed, also with the aid of operating machines, is allowed in plastic containers immediately closed by heat-sealing. The packaged ricotta is then quickly cooled to a temperature of +4 ºC in a cold room or in a water and/or ice bath. The production of milk, whey and fresh cream that contribute to the production of “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” and the production and packaging operations must take place in the territory referred to in Article 3 in order to ensure traceability and control and to avoid altering the quality of the product.
Link with the environment
The history of the relationship of the “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” with the territory of origin is in fact the history of the relationship with the territory of the milk with which the Mozzarella di Bufala Campana was produced, from which whey originates the “Ricotta di Bufala Campana”. The relationship between “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” and “Mozzarella di Bufala Campana” is therefore very close, as the literature of the past testifies.
The tradition of the production of “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” tells of a very close link with the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana and then with the arrival of the buffalo in central-southern Italy dating back to at least 1300. Between the X and XI century the phenomenon of swamping developed in the areas between Mondragone and Volturno (Guadagno G., L’ager Falernus in Roman times, in AA. VV., Storia Economia ed Architettura nell’ager Falernus Atti delle giornate di studio Falciano del Massico February-March 1986 pag 37 edited by G. Guadagno, Minturno 1987) and the buffalo found a suitable habitat and the buffalo milk replaced the cow’s milk in the preparation of that laudatissimum caseum of Campo Cedicio, a cheese already mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Pliny, Naturalis Historia, XI 241). In the thirteenth century the spread of the buffalo is documented in Capitanata (Fiorentino, Montecorvino, Foggia and Lucera), in Salernitano, Sicily and Pontine plagues (Cantù M. C., l. c., p. 42; Faraglia M., History of prices in Naples from 1131 to 1860, (Naples 1878), p. 73; AA. VV., Insediamenti benedettini in Puglia Catalogue of the Exhibition curated by M. S. Calò Mariani, II/l,(Galatina 1981), p.75. Carucci C., Codice diplomatico Salerinitano del Secolo XIV (Salerno 1950) I pp. 72; 436; II 449; 462; 481; 483) as well as in other areas of Italy. One of the first citations of Ricotta, associated with Mozzarella and other dairy products is made in a cookbook published in 1570 by Bartolomeo Scappi chef of the Papal Court where specialties from all over Italy and Europe “…head of milk, fresh butiro, ricotta flower, fresh mozzarella and milk snow…” (Scappi B., Opera, (Venice 1570), c. 275r.). Archive documents dating back to the seventeenth century confirming what is reported by Scappi show that alongside the typical products of the buffalo dairy on the market capuano influx provole and smoked mozzarella and ricotta cheese and buffalo salted and smoked (Biblioteca del Museo Campano di Capua, “Archivio Storico di Capua”, fasc. 159: Libro delle Assise della città di Capua, passim.). More detailed and direct information about Ricotta di Bufala can be found starting from the mid 1800’s. In 1859 Achille Bruni, Professor of the Royal University of Naples, in his monograph “Del latte e dei suoi derivati” published in the New Agrarian Encyclopedia, described in summary how Ricotta di Bufala was then produced: “After milking the milk and pouring it into the vat, put the kid’s rennet in it; and after having congealed with the wooden spatula it is cut into large pieces. Then with a wooden dickuliera takes off the serum that is boiled to get the ricotta.”. Santojanni in 1911 in his “Notes on the buffalo milk dairy” further confirms the historical and technological link between the production of Mozzarella and Ricotta di Bufala, also specifying that “the ricotta that you have with the heating of whey is called fior di ricotta. After this, the serum is added a little acid serum, and you have other ricotta less delicious than the previous because it is lower in fat”. The strong link with the territory and its changes resulting from the reclamation operations have influenced over the years the alternating fortunes of buffalo farming and with them the production of milk and then of Mozzarella and Ricotta di Bufala, also because of the less attention that ricotta has always aroused especially at the level of statistical investigation being often incorporated generically in fresh products. Savini in his study on ricotta in 1950 also cites the “Ricotta di Bufala Campana”: “in the Roman and Caserta countryside, where there is a buffalo dairy, the residual serum is also used for the preparation of ricotta. Savini’s few words, however, document the lack of attention paid to a product of little commercial weight at the time, but nevertheless well present in the consumption of local populations.
The verification of the conformity of the product with the specification is carried out by a control structure, in accordance with Articles 10 and 11 of Reg. (EC) No. 510/2006. This structure is the Control Body CSQA Certificazioni Srl – Via San Gaetano, 74 – 36016 Thiene (VI) – tel. +39-044-531301,1 fax +39-0445-313070 e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Labelling and packaging
The “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” PDO must be packaged in paper, plastic containers for food use heat-sealed or in other windings for food. Where the product is transferred for use as an ingredient in processed products, packages of up to 40 kg are allowed.
The packaging must bear the following additional information on the label in clear and legible print, in addition to the logo of the name, the Community graphic symbol and the information corresponding to the legal requirements:
– the words “fresh” or “homogenized fresh” according to Art. 5 of this specification. The words “fresh” or “fresh homogenized” should be indicated immediately below the Denomination “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” with characters equal to 50% of those used for the denomination “Ricotta di Bufala Campana”.
The logo is issued, after the verification of conformity of the production to this specification, by the Control Structure appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies. It is prohibited to add any other description not expressly provided for in this specification including adjectives: fine, chosen, extra, selected, superior, genuine or otherwise appreciative of the product, however, the use of indications referring to private trade marks may be permitted, provided that they have no laudatory meaning or are such as to mislead the consumer, as well as other truthful and documentable references that are permitted by current legislation and are not in conflict with the purposes and contents of this specification. The words “Ricotta di Bufala Campana” must be in Italian.
The logo of the name reproduces a circular tricolour ribbon from which the profile of the head of a buffalo emerges. The words RICOTTA DI BUFALA CAMPANA are in capital letters. The ribbon consists of three color strips: green (91% cyan and 83% yellow), red (79% Magenta and 91% yellow) and white. The buffalo head is black. The wording RICOTTA DI BUFALA is red (79% Magenta and 91% yellow), completed by CAMPANA green (91% cyan and 83% yellow).
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